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Ramon Bogdanov
Ramon Bogdanov

Auto Edge Constraint Etabs Crack

Typically in finite element analysis, shell elements are connected to other elements at corner joints only. When an element does not frame into the corner joint of a shell element, but instead frames into the edge of the shell element, no connection exists between the element and the shell element. The ETABS auto edge constraints feature can be used to specify that elements framing into the edge of a shell element be connected to the shell element. ETABS internally takes care of connection between the elements by constraining joints lying along an edge of the shell element to move with that edge of the element.

Auto Edge Constraint Etabs Crack


A Survey on Benchmark Defects Encountered in the Oil Pipe Industries PDFWissam Alobaidi, Eric Sandgren, Hussain Al-RizzoOil and natural gas have been transported by pipeline for over a century, yielding a large amount of information about defects in manufacture and in service. Research has moved toward early detection of defects in the body and welds of pipe during the manufacturing process. The most common defects occur in the welds, and can be categorized into 7 basic types: porosities, slag inclusions, lack of fusion, lack of penetration, cracks, burn-through and irregular shapes. Any of these may occur in the five most common welding configurations used in manufacturing. The five common joint types are: butt-weld joint, tee-weld joint, corner-weld joint, lap-weld joint and edge-weld joint. The purpose is to aid in the elimination of problems in the manufacturing process that lead to manufacturing defects, thus enhancing product quality. The relationship between defect type and the Non-destructive testing (NDT) methods which best detect each type, are summarized in tabular form. The table also relates the location of the defect (whether surface or subsurface, or both) to the NDT techniques. Illustrations of each type of defect are presented for reference. The relationship of defect type and location to cost and labor needed to detect each type, is presented in graphic form. The surface defects are easily detected with Visual Inspection, while subsurface defects can be caught with Radiographic Testing when conducted at the recommended speed of 50mm/s, but if they are missed they can be detected with Ultrasonic Testing, which is more labor-intensive, and which must be verified with a second NDT technique, Digital X-ray Testing. To enhance production efficiency, and the series of NDT stations needed for oil and natural gas pipeline manufacturing, we must determine how to incorporate new techniques to cover the shortcomings of present methods of detecting defects. This will reduce labor time and increase throughput while maintaining the quality of the finished product.


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