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Asher Anderson
Asher Anderson

Creating Users With Passwords That Do Not Meet Complexity Requirements High Quality

The Passwords must meet complexity requirements policy setting determines whether passwords must meet a series of strong-password guidelines. When enabled, this setting requires passwords to meet the following requirements:

Creating users with passwords that do not meet complexity requirements

When enabled, the default Passfilt.dll may cause some more Help Desk calls for locked-out accounts, because users are used to passwords that contain only characters that are in the alphabet. But this policy setting is liberal enough that all users should get used to it.

Set Passwords must meet complexity requirements to Enabled. This policy setting, combined with a minimum password length of 8, ensures that there are at least 159,238,157,238,528 different possibilities for a single password. This setting makes a brute force attack difficult, but still not impossible.

The use of ALT key character combinations may greatly enhance the complexity of a password. However, requiring all users in an organization to adhere to such stringent password requirements might result in unhappy users and an over-worked Help Desk. Consider implementing a requirement in your organization to use ALT characters in the range from 0128 through 0159 as part of all administrator passwords. (ALT characters outside of that range can represent standard alphanumeric characters that don't add more complexity to the password.)

Short passwords that contain only alphanumeric characters are easy to compromise by using publicly available tools. To prevent this vulnerability, passwords should contain other characters and/or meet complexity requirements.

If the default configuration for password complexity is kept, more Help Desk calls for locked-out accounts could occur because users might not be used to passwords that contain non-alphabetical characters, or they might have problems entering passwords that contain accented characters or symbols on keyboards with different layouts. However, all users should be able to follow the complexity requirement with minimal difficulty.

You can set a custom password policy on your AWS account to specify complexity requirements and mandatory rotation periods for your IAM users' passwords. If you don't set a custom password policy, IAM user passwords must meet the default AWS password policy. For more information, see Custom password policy options.

When the minimum length and character type requirements change, these settings are enforced the next time that your users change their passwords. Users are not forced to change their existing passwords, even if the existing passwords do not adhere to the updated password policy.

I generate a password with Lastpass (15 characters, only small/upper). However, I get the error "Password does not meet password policy requirements".It even happens on Azure AD joined devices, that don't have GPO.It only works when I add a number. Any idea?

As a general rule, you should avoid writing down your password. In cases where it is necessary to write down a password, that password should be stored in a secure location and properly destroyed when no longer needed (see Guidelines for Data Protection). Using a password manager to store your passwords is not recommended unless the password manager leverages strong encryption and requires authentication prior to use. The ISO has vetted some password managers that meets these requirements.

Shared service accounts typically provide an elevated level of access to a system. System-level accounts, such as root and Administrator, provide complete control over a system. This makes these types of accounts highly susceptible to malicious activity. As a result, a more lengthy and complex password should be implemented. System-level and shared service accounts are typically critical to the operation of a system or application. Because of this, these passwords are often known by more than one administrator. Passwords should be changed anytime someone with knowledge of the password changes job responsibilities or terminates employment. Use of accounts such as root and Administrator should also be limited as much as possible. Alternatives should be explored such as using sudo in place of root and creating unique accounts for Windows administration instead of using default accounts.

Password encryption. Oracle Database automatically and transparently encrypts passwords during network (client-to-server and server-to-server) connections, using Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) before sending them across the network. However, a password that is specified within a SQL statement (such as CREATE USER user_name IDENTIFIED BY password;) is still transmitted across the network in clear text in the network trace files. For this reason, you should have Advanced Security Option native network encryption enabled or configure Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) encryption

Password complexity checking. In a default installation, Oracle Database provides the ora12c_verify_function and ora12c_strong_verify_function password verification functions to ensure that new or changed passwords are sufficiently complex to prevent intruders who try to break into the system by guessing passwords. You must manually enable password complexity checking. You can further customize the complexity of your users' passwords. See About Password Complexity Verification for more information.

Preventing passwords from being broken. If a user tries to log in to Oracle Database multiple times using an incorrect password, then Oracle Database delays each login by one second. This protection applies for attempts that are made from different IP addresses or multiple client connections. This feature significantly decreases the number of passwords that an intruder would be able to try within a fixed time period when attempting to log in. The failed login delay slows down each failed login attempt, increasing the overall time that is required to perform a password-guessing attack because such attacks usually require a very large number of failed login attempts.

Passwords can be at most 30 bytes long. There are a variety of ways that you can secure passwords, ranging from requiring passwords to be of a sensible length to creating custom password complexity verification scripts that enforce the password complexity policy requirements that apply at your site. See the additional guidelines described in Guidelines for Securing Passwords.

When you create a database, most of the default accounts are locked with the passwords expired. If you have upgraded from an earlier release of Oracle Database, then you may have user accounts that have default passwords. These are default accounts that are created when you create a database, such as the HR, OE, and SCOTT accounts.

This means that the next time the user logs in with the current, correct password, he or she is prompted to change the password. By default, there are no complexity or password history checks, so users can still reuse any previous or weak passwords. You can control these factors by setting the PASSWORD_REUSE_TIME, PASSWORD_REUSE_MAX, and PASSWORD_VERIFY_FUNCTION parameters. (See Controlling the User Ability to Reuse Previous Passwords and About Password Complexity Verification for more information.)

Using a complexity verification function forces users to create strong, secure passwords for database user accounts. You must ensure that the passwords for your users are complex enough to provide reasonable protection against intruders who try to break into the system by guessing passwords.

These functions are in the utlpwdmg.sql PL/SQL script (located in $ORACLE_HOME/rdbms/admin). When these functions are enabled, they can check whether users are correctly creating or modifying their passwords. When enabled, password complexity checking is not enforced for user SYS; it only applies to non-SYS users. For better security of passwords, Oracle recommends that you associate the password verification function with the default profile. About Customizing Password Complexity Verification provides an example of how to accomplish this.

You can create your own password complexity verification function by backing up the utlpwdmg.sql script and then editing the functions created by this script. In fact, Oracle recommends that you do so to further secure your site's passwords.

See also Guideline 1 in Guidelines for Securing Passwords for general advice on creating passwords. Remember that the password complexity checking is not enforced for user SYS. If you make no modifications to the utlpwdmg.sql script, then it uses the ora12c_verify_function function as the default function.

For greater security, Oracle recommends that you use case sensitivity in passwords. However, if you have compatibility issues with your applications, then you can use the SEC_CASE_SENSITIVE_LOGON parameter to disable password case sensitivity. Examples of application compatibility issues are applications that force passwords to uppercase before using them to authenticate to the Oracle server, or different application modules being inconsistent about case sensitivity when sending credentials to start a database session.

In addition to the server-side settings, you should ensure that the client software with which the users are connecting has the O5L_NP capability flag. All Oracle Database release and later clients have the O5L_NP capability. If you have an earlier client, then you must install the CPUOct2012 patch.

The password for jones was reset in Release 12.1 when the setting for the SQLNET.ALLOWED_LOGON_VERSION_SERVER parameter was 8. This enabled all three password versions to be created. The passwords for accounts adams and clark were originally created in Release 10g and then reset in Release 11g. The Release 11g software was using the default SQLNET.ALLOWED_LOGON_VERSION setting of 8 at that time. Their passwords, because case sensitivity is enabled by default, are now case sensitive, as is the password for preston. The account for user preston was imported from a Release 11g database that was running in Exclusive Mode (that is, with SQLNET.ALLOWED_LOGON_VERSION set to 12). However, the account for blake is still using the Release 10g password version. At this stage, user blake will be prevented from logging in.


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